In the case of Myanmar, the age group of persons 15 years and older, female literacy in 2015 was estimated at 86.9% and male literacy at 92.0%. Primary school enrolment has increased, and gender parity has been achieved at the primary and secondary school levels. However, there are continuing concerns about retention rates, performance levels of certain categories of children especially in secondary school, and the quality and gender sensitivity of education.
Impressive national data on female education mask economic, regional, and urban–rural disparities. For instance, Shan State has the lowest female literacy rate among young women, at 59.4%. The national data reveal that children from the poorest households enter primary and secondary schools later than their economically privileged counterparts. There are also contradictory trends between related sectors. The obvious progress in women’s education and the larger proportion of women in higher education does not match post education employment data that indicate lower labour force participation rates and higher unemployment for women than men.